Primary Health Care


is

Primary care is the level of a health services system that provides entry into the system for all new needs and problems, provides person-focused (not disease-oriented) care over time, provides care for all but very uncommon or unusual conditions, and coordinates or integrates care, regardless of where the care is delivered and who provides it. It is the means by which the two main goals of a health services system, optimization and equity of health status, are approached.
What is a Community Health Center?
Community health centers (CHCs) are private, nonprofit organizations that directly or indirectly (through contracts and cooperative agreements) provide primary health services and related services to residents of a defined geographic area that is medically undeserved. Community health centers are authorized under Section 330 of the Public Health Service Act, 42 USC, 254b. Section 330 was revised in 1996 by the Consolidated Health Centers Act, which combined community health centers with migrant health centers, health care for the homeless, and public housing health care programs. Section 330 health centers receive grant funding from the federal government (about 26% of revenue) and reimbursement from Medicaid (35% of revenue). They are also supported by other federal grants, state and local grants or contracts, private grants, Medicare, private insurance, and patient fees.
Community health centers have a three-fold mission. First, CHCs aim to improve access to care for low income, underserved, and vulnerable populations. They are required to be located in medically underserved rural and urban areas; within those communities, they serve those with limited access to more mainstream health care. Second, CHCs provide a fully comprehensive range of primary care services, including “enabling” or support services. Third, true to their roots in the community activism of the 1960s, they involve the community in both the management and governance of the center.
In FY 1996, there were 685 federally funded CHCs, operating in 3,032 sites across the U.S. and serving over 8 million people. A large proportion of health center patients are children (42%) and women of childbearing ages (39%). CHCs also serve a high proportion of minorities: 33 percent of users are African American, 29 percent Hispanic, and 5 percent Asian or Pacific Islander.
A majority of health center patients are either uninsured (41%) or on Medicaid (33%). The rest are private paying (17%), on Medicare (8%), or have other forms of public insurance, such as state health insurance (8%). Fifty-nine percent of health care patients are below the poverty level, and another 20 percent are between 100-200 percent of poverty. Because of their lower socioeconomic status, many health center patients have pressing health care needs.
Community health centers are required by law to provide “primary health services,” and “additional health services as necessary” to the residents of the area served by the center (otherwise known as the “catchment area”). “Primary health services” are defined as 1) health services related to family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, or gynecology, 2) diagnostic laboratory and radiologic services, 3) preventive health services, 4) emergency medical services, and 5) pharmaceutical services. Additionally, health centers provide referrals to providers of substance abuse services, mental health services, patient case management services, enabling services such as transportation and language services, and patient education. When appropriate for the population, health centers also provide environmental health services and migrant/agricultural workers services.
†This definition describes community health centers that are supported by federal grants and financing. There are many other types of health centers operating in the U.S. health care system, which receive public or charity funding (e.g., “free clinics” or health centers affiliated with hospitals, etc.). With the growth in outpatient, community-based care, the number of health centers has grown. Unfortunately, we do not have systematic data on these other types of health centers. http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/johns-hopkins-primary-care-policy-center/definitions.html
Primary Health Care, menurut deklarasi Alma Alta 1978, adalah sebagai berikut:
“Primary Health Care is essential health care, based on practical, scientifically sound socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and the country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development, in the spirit of self reliance and self determination.”
“It forms and integral part both of the country’s health system, of which it is the central function and its main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process”.

Primary Health Care ( PHC ) adalah : pelayanan kesehatan pokok yang berdasarkan kepada metode dan teknologi praktis, ilmiah dan sosial yang dapat diterima secara umum baik oleh individu maupun keluarga dalam masyarakat melalui partisipasi mereka sepenuhnya, serta dengan biaya yang dapat terjangkau oleh masyarakat dan negara untuk memelihara setiap tingkat perkembangan mereka dalam semangat untuk hidup mandiri dan menentukan nasib sendiri.

WHO. The ultimate goal of primary health care is better health for all. WHO has identified five key elements to achieving that goal:
1. reducing exclusion and social disparities in health (universal coverage reforms);
2. organizing health services around people’s needs and expectations (service
delivery reforms);
3. integrating health into all sectors (public policy reforms);
4. pursuing collaborative models of policy dialogue (leadership reforms); and
5. increasing stakeholder participation

pdca2

Filosofi Primary Health Care:

1. Menggambarkan keadaan sosial ekonomi, budaya (local wisdom) dan politik masyarakat dan berdasarkan penerapan hasil penelitian kesehatan-sosial-biomedis (eviden based medicine) dan pelayanan kesehatan masyarakat.
2. Ditujukan untuk mengatasi masalah utama kesehatan masyarakat dengan upaya preventif, promotif, kuratif dan rehabilitatif.
3. Minimal mencakup: penyuluhan tentang masalah kesehatan utama dan cara pencegahan dan pengendaliannya, penyediaan makanan dan peningkatan gizi, penyediaan sanitasi dasar dan air bersih, pembinaan kesehatan ibu dan anak termasuk keluarga berencana, imunisasi terhadap penyakit menular utama dan penyegahan penyakit endemik, pengobatan penyakit umum, cedera, penyediaan obat esensial, dan pengelolaan penyakit kronis.
4. Terlibat dan menjadi penggerak dalam peningkatan kerjasama lintas sektor dan aspek-aspek pembangunan nasional dan masyarakat.
5. Membutuhkan sekaligus meningkatkan kepercayaan diri serta masyarakat dalam perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pelaksanaan, dan pengendalian dalam upaya meningkatkan akses dan kualitas pelayanan kesehatan dengan penggunaan sumberdaya yang terbatas.
6. Ditunjang oleh system rujukan upaya kesehatan secara terpadu dengan memberikan pelayanan secara menyeluruh dan terintegrasi.
7. Didukung oleh tenaga kesehatan professional dan visioner, berperan sebagai social entrepreneurs, bersama dengan masyarakat yang memiliki keshalehan personal dan sosial untuk bekerja sebagai tim kesehatan yang mampu bekerja bersama mendorong peran serta masyarakat.

Dengan demikian, konsep pelayanan kesehatan primer (PHC) merupakan pelayanan kesehatan essensial yang dibuat dan bisa terjangkau secara universal oleh individu dan keluarga, dan masyarakat dalam rangka mendukung penuh tercapainya universal health coverage (UHC). Fokus dari pelayanan kesehatan primer luas jangkauannya dan merangkum berbagai aspek masyarakat dan kebutuhan kesehatan. PHC merupakan pola penyajian pelayanan kesehatan dimana konsumen pelayanan kesehatan menjadi mitra dengan profesi dan ikut serta mencapai tujuan umum kesehatan yang lebih baik.

(Klinik Insepar & KMC: Our clinics empower and inspire health profesional and public to embrace the challenges of today in order to create change for now, tomorrow, and on the next future for better primary care in Indonesia and the world

Global Health Observatory Data Repository


who

Browse data tables by topicThe GHO “By topic” view provides data classified according to health related topics. Relevant indicators are grouped together in the various data views in order to provide broader context for the information provided.

Information regarding browsing, searching, and downloading data from the repository is available under “About the Observatory”.

Definition of Evidence-Based Medicine


Evidence based medicine (EBM) was originally defined as the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The practice of evidence based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research.
(Sackett DL, Rosenberg WMC, Gray JAM, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn’t. BMJ 1996; 312: 71-2)

The revised and improved definition of evidence-based medicine is a systematic approach to clinical problem solving which allows the integration of the best available research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values.
(Sackett DL, Strauss SE, Richardson WS,et al. Evidence-based medicine: how to practice and teach EBM. London: Churchill-Livingstone,2000)

Evidence-Based Practice is defined as, “Making a conscientious effort to base clinical decisions on research that is most likely to be free from bias, and using interventions most likely to improve how long or well patients live.”
(Mark H. Ebell, MD, MS, Professor, University of Georgia, Editor-in-Chief, Essential Evidence Plus)

What EBM skills do all practicing clinicians really need?

While EBM is a large step forward, these skills are necessary but not sufficient for the practice of contemporary medicine. All clinicians should:

  • Find the best evidence for every day practice (Information mastery)
  • Assess relevance before rigor. Is the evidence patient oriented?
  • Evaluate information about therapies, diagnostic tests, and clinicaldecision rules. Is it true?
  • Understand basic statistics.
  • Have at fingertips “just in time” information at the point of care using web based and/or handheld computer based information and tools for clinical decision making
  • Evaluate expert-based information, including colleagues, CME, presentations, reviews and guidelines.
  • Critically evaluate information from pharmaceutical representatives. No Free Lunch.

Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF. Teaching evidence-based medicine: should we be teaching information management instead? Acad Med. 2005 Jul;80(7):685-9.

EBM as Lifelong Learning

The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning in which caring for one’s own patients creates the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care issues.

Instead of routinely reviewing the contents of dozens of journals for interesting articles, EBM suggests that you target your reading to issues related to specific patient problems. Developing clinical questions and then searching current databases may be a more productive way of keeping current with the literature.

Evidence-based medicine “converts the abstract exercise of reading and appraising the literature into the pragmatic process of using the literature to benefit individual patients while simultaneously expanding the clinician’s knowledge base.”
(Bordley, D.R. Fagan M, Theige D. Evidence-based medicine: a powerful educational tool for clerkship education. Am J Med. 1997 May;102(5):427-32.)

Five Step Model of Evidence-Based Medicine

  1. Convert information needs into answerable questions
  2. Track down with maximum efficiency the best evidence with which to answer them
  3. Critically appraise that evidence for its validity and usefulness
  4. Apply the results of this appraisal in your practice
  5. Evaluate your performance

To convert your information needs into a focused question, PICO format, see:

Levels of Evidence

Levels of Evidence

Ebell MH, Siwek J, Weiss BD, et al. Strength of recommendation taxonomy (SORT): a patient-centered approach to grading evidence in the medical literature. Am Fam Physician. 2004 Feb 1;69(3):548-56.

The EBM Pyramid hierarchy of rigor

Major Evidence Based Medicine Databases (EBM Foraging Tools)

A high-quality foraging tool employs a transparent process that

  1. systematically surveys or reviews the literature,
  2. filters out disease-oriented research and presents only patient-oriented research outcomes,
  3. demonstrates that a validity assessment has been performed using appropriate criteria,
  4. assigns levels of evidence, based on appropriate validity criteria, to individual studies,
  5. provides specific recommendations, when feasible, on how to apply the information, placing it into clinical context,
  6. comprehensively reviews the literature for a specific specialty or discipline, and
  7. coordinates with a high-quality hunting tool.
    (Slawson, et al)

Cochrane Collaboration.
Highest level of rigor, systematically reviews the entire English publications on a topic. Full text available through Cochrane Library at Wiley. Cochrane Systematic Reviews on therapy topics only contain randomized clinical trials. (What is the Cochrane Collaboration?)

ACP Journal Club
Critical appraisals of studies from two journals, the ACP Journal Club and Evidence Based Medicine. (What is the ACP Journal Club?)

Evidence-Based Practice
Journal published by FPIN, Family Physicians Inquiries Network, containing reviews of current research.

InfoPOEMS
Patient Oriented Evidence that Matters. Published daily. Ongoing since 1996, editors review more than 1,200 studies monthly from 100+ medical journals, presenting only the best as InfoPOEMs. The acclaimed POEMs process applies specific criteria for validity and relevance to clinical practice. About 1 in 40 studies qualifies. (What is an InfoPOEM?)

National Guideline Clearinghouse
Storehouse of most clinical practice guidelines, some evidence-based, some specialty based, from the AHRQ. (What is included in the NGC?)

US Preventative Services Task Force
An independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services.
Use online ePSS Tool or download PDA version here.

EBM Hunting Tools

These resources combine many of the above resources into one tool that searches multiple resources, then organizes the results by category representing the type of question you have. Four of the following are available on the web and PDA for all CoM faculty and students. Step-by step-directions for using each of these products on the web and PDA is available in this PDF document: Using EBM Resources

Clinical Evidence
Evidence-based evaluations of interventions for common clinical conditions developed in collaboration with the American College of Physicians, the American Society of Internal Medicine and BMJ. Available on PDA.

Essential Evidence Plus
Collection of systematic review, calculators, and other evidence based resources. Includes the Cochrane abstracts, InfoPOEM reviews, guidelines, clinical prediction tools, Essential Evidence and much more. Available on PDA.

DynaMed
DynaMed contains clinically organized summaries of nearly 1,800 topics and is updated daily from review of the research literature. Includes the Cochrane abstracts, ACP Journal Club, guidelines, USPSTF recommendations, their own reviews, as well as background materials. Available on PDA.

ACP Smart Medicine
PIER (Physicians’ Information and Education Resource) is a Web-based decision-support tool designed for rapid point-of-care delivery of up-to-date, evidence-based guidance for clinicians. The Maguire library has a subscription at the ACP. It is also free to all members of the ACP and to all medical students with an ACP membership at the same site.

PEPID CRC
One-stop-shop for clinical information presented in the context of clinical rotations for medical students. Includes the FPIN inquiries as well as comprehensive drug, disease, and lab references plus calculators and images. Available on PDA.

See EBM Tools on the Medical Library Website.

Last resort to track down evidence. Articles will need to be appraised before using.

MEDLINE at PubMed

Advanced EBM Skills

Only a small percentage of clinicians in each specialty need to be able to do the following:

  • Critical Appraisal and Interpretation of Research on:
    • Therapies
    • Diagnostic Tests
    • Prognosis
  • Critical Evaluation and Interpretation of:
    • Systematic Reviews, Including Meta-analysis
    • Decision Analysis
    • Practice Guidelines
    • Pharmaceutical Advertising, Including Pharmaceutical Representatives
  • Assigning Levels of Evidence to Research Findings to:
  • Teaching Level 1 Skills
  • Written Communication of Research Findings
    • Physicians
    • Patients

(Slawson, et al)

To help critically appraise an article or guideline, use the following guides:

Users’ Guides to the Medical Literature
User guides to evidence-based practice from JAMA.

How to Read A Paper (series in BMJ) by Trisha Greenhalgh

Critical Appraisal Worksheets

Study design, statistics and levels of evidence

More information about evidence-based medicine

Al-Quran Terjaga dari Distorsi


Al-Quran Terjaga dari Distorsi

Agama Islam sebagai agama abadi memiliki rangkaian ajaran dari akidah hingga akhlak, yang jika dijalankan dengan benar akan membawa ke arah kebahagiaan dunia dan akhirat. Komitmen terhadap ajaran Islam akan membimbing setiap orang mencapai kesempurnaan. Sebab Islam adalah  agama berpijak pada fitrah manusia dan sesuai dengan kebutuhannya. Allah swt menjelaskan sumber aturan agama fitrawi ini dalam kitab suci al-Quran.

Al-Quran adalah firman Tuhan sekaligus mujizat Nabi Muhammad Saw. Kitab suci al-Quran turun lebih dari 1.400 tahun yang lalu. Tapi, tidak ada perubahan dan penyimpangan di dalamnya hingga kini. Seluruh umat Islam meyakini Al-Quran yang ada di tengah kita saat ini sama persis, tidak kurang maupun lebih, dengan yang diturunkan oleh Allah swt kepada Nabi Muhammad Saw. Hingga kini, isinya tidak mengalami perubahan dan distorsi.

Nabi Muhammad Saw sebagai utusan Allah swt menjaga keotentikan kitab suci al-Quran. Sejak turun, hafalan al-Quran menjadi masalah penting. Saking banyaknya para penghafal al-Quran, sejarah menunjukkan bahwa dalam sebuah perang yang terjadi di dekat Madinah sekitar 70 orang penghafal al-Quran syahid. Selain itu, masih banyak para penghafal al-Quran lainnya yang masih hidup ketika itu.

Rasulullah Saw menyerukan kepada para sahabatnya dan umat Islam untuk menghafalkan al-Quran dan mengamalkan isinya. Nabi Muhammad Saw menerima wahyu dari Allah swt dan menyampaikan kepada para sahabatnya. Ketika itu, Rasulullah memanggil para penulis wahyu, terutama Ali bin Abi Thalib, untuk menuliskan ayat al-Quran. Susunan urutan ayat berdasarkan instruksi langsung dari Nabi Muhammad Saw.

Salah seorang mufasir Sunni, Zamakhsyari dalam “Tafsir al-Kasyaf” di pembukaan tafsir surat al-Taubah menulis, “Jika ditanya mengapa surat [al-Taubah] berbeda dengan kebanyakan surat al-Quran lainnya yang dimulai dengan ‘Bismillahi rahmani rahim’. Ibnu Abbas mendapat penjelasan dari Utsman, khalifah ketiga setelah wafatnya Rasulullah Saw. Ia berkata, metode Rasulullah Saw adalah setiap kali turun wahyu, beliau memanggil para penulis wahyu dan bersabda: ini di masukan ke bagian tertentu… dan beliau tidak memerintahkan untuk memasukan ‘Bismillahi rahmani rahim’ dalam surat [al-Taubah] ini.”

Berbagai riwayat menjelaskan mengenai tidak adanya distorsi al-Quran sejak turun wahyu kepada Nabi Muhammad Saw hingga kini, yang menunjukkan keotentikan al-Quran sepanjang sejarah. Terkait hal ini, Imam Shadiq dalam Biharul-Anwar jilid 89, berkata, “Al-Quran adalah firman Allah swt, kitabullah yang diturunkan Allah swt. Kitab ini tidak bisa diubah, dan kebatilan tidak akan bisa mempengaruhinya”. Selain itu, dalam riwayat lainnya sebagaimana dikutip dari Uyun Akhbar al-Ridha jilid pertama, beliau berkata, “Al-Quran sejak awal hingga akhir adalah kebenaran”.

Setelah Rasulullah Saw wafat, para sahabat beliau menjaga keotentikan al-Quran dari distorsi dan penyimpangan. Mereka menunjukkan perhatian dalam penulisan dan gaya tulis al-Quran. Meskipun gaya bahasa Arab yang dipakai para sahabat ketika itu berbeda-beda, tapi para sahabat berupaya untuk menyeragamkan qiraat sesuai  dengan yang telah diajarkan oleh Rasulullah Saw.

Salah satu mujizat al-Quran adalah keterjagaannya dari segala bentuk distorsi dan penyimpangan. Mujizat al-Quran tidak hanya terbatas huruf khusus dan kalimah khasnya saja. Keunggulan al-Quran sejak dulu telah banyak dibuktikan dalam kajian sastra Arab, terutama mengenai keindahannya, baik sebelum maupun sesudah turunnya kitabullah ini. Mujizat al-Quran juga terdapat dalam kekayaan isi dan keselarasan rangkaian ayatnya yang tersusun dalam sebuah surat dengan makna yang dalam dan indah.

Keunggulan sebuah karya sastra tidak hanya mengenai kalimat dan susunan katanya saja. Tapi juga berkaitan erat dengan struktur khusus yang tampil di dalamnya. Karakteristik struktur dan isi al-Quran yang berada di luar kemampuan manusia menyebabkan kitab suci ilahi ini terjaga dari segala bentuk distorsi. Hingga kini, tidak ada seorang pun sepanjang sejarah yang mampu menandingi al-Quran, bahkan satu suratpun.

Al-Quran membuktikan kemujizatannnya dengan menggunakan “tahaddi” dalam berbagai ayat baik langsung maupun tidak langsung. Tahaddi adalah sebuah realitas sejarah al-Quran. Dalam tahaddi, Allah swt menantang para pengingkar wahyu dan menentang kenabian Muhammad Saw untuk membuat semisal al-Quran.Dalam surat Hud ayat 13, Allah swt berfirman, “Bahkan mereka mengatakan: ‘Muhammad telah membuat-buat Al Quran itu’, Katakanlah: (Kalau demikian), maka datangkanlah sepuluh surat yang dibuat-buat untuk menyamainya, dan panggillah orang-orang yang kamu sanggup (memanggilnya) selain Allah, jika kamu memang orang-orang yang benar.”

Di bagian lain dari al-Quran dalam surat at-Tur ayat 33 dan 34, Allah swt berfirman, “Maka hendaklah mereka mendatangkan kalimat yang semisal Al-Quran itu jika mereka orang-orang yang benar. Apakah mereka diciptakan tanpa sesuatupun ataukah mereka yang menciptakan(diri mereka sendiri)?”

Sejak dahulu, para sastrawan Arab terkemuka tidak mampu menerima tantangan dengan menyajikan semisal al-Quran. Sebab al-Quran memiliki karakteristik khusus yang tidak bisa ditandingi oleh karya sastra manapun. Oleh karena itu, jika sejak dahulu ada orang yang mampu menandingi al-Quran tentu telah dipergunakan oleh orang-orang kafir untuk menyerang Islam.

Suatu hari Nabi Muhammad Saw tawaf lalu duduk di masjidul Haram sambil mengucapkan surat al-Ghafir. Tiba-tiba Walid bin Mughairah yang menguasai fasahah dan balaghah melintas di depan beliau. Keindahan al-Quran menarik  perhatian Walid, tapi pembangkangannya membuat ia menolak kalam ilahi itu. Ketika berada di tengah teman-temannya, Walid mengatakan,“Perkataannya memiliki rasa tersendiri, indah, [memiliki] karakteristik khusus, dengan rantingnya yang berbuah, dan akarnya yang kuat. Perkataannya mengungguli perkataan lain, dan tidak ada yang bisa menandinginya.“(Majma’ Al-Bayan jilid 10, tafsir surat al-Mudatsir).

Salah satu metode dalil paling jelas mengenai keotentikan al-Quran dan penolakan terhadap distorsi adalah jaminan langsung dari Allah swt yang menjaga al-Quran. Dalam al-Quran surat al-Hijr ayat 9, Allah swt berfirman,“Sesungguhnya Kami-lah yang menurunkan Al Quran, dan sesungguhnya Kami benar-benar memeliharanya.” Berdasarkan ayat ini, Allah swt menegaskan keagungan al-Quran yang turun sebagai wahyu, dan melindungi serta menjaga tiap bagiannya hingga terpelihara setelah diturunkan.

Maksud dari menjaga dalam ayat ini adalah, Allah swt tidak akan membiarkan terjadinya penyimpangan dalam al-Quran, baik penambahan maupun pengurangan dari kitab suci ini. Selain itu, lembaran sejarah menunjukkan bahwa al-Quran dari dulu hingga kini hanya satu saja. Meskipun ada berbagai mazhab dalam Islam, tapi semua sepakat dan disatukan oleh al-Quran yang sama. Semua mazhab berpijak dari satu al-Quran sebagai pedoman dan rujukan utamanya. Oleh karena itu, jika ada perubahan sekecil apapun tentu saja akan dicatat dalam sejarah.(IRIB Indonesia/PH)

Kegiatan Amal dan Berbagi Kebahagiaan


Kegiatan Amal dan Berbagi Kebahagiaan

Salah satu anugerah terindah Tuhan kepada manusia adalah nikmat kebahagiaan, kesenangan, dan cinta. Budaya dan ajaran Islam menaruh perhatian khusus terhadap masalah kebahagiaan,kesenangan, dan kepuasan.Islam dengan cara yang sederhana mengajarkan manusia tentang cara memanfaatkan kebahagiaan,menikmati kehidupan, dan merasa puas dengannya. Islam bahkan memberi pahala atas sebuah senyum yang dihadiahkan untuk orang lain dan menganggapnya sebagai perbuatan mulia. Oleh karena itu, Islam memberi perhatian serius terhadap masalah kebahagiaan dan melestarikannya sehingga bisa mengobati rasa dahaga manusia.

Menurut para psikolog,membahagiakan orang lain adalah usaha menciptakan kepuasan dalam hidup mereka dan menanamkan rasa optimis dalam diri mereka. Tuhan menganggap kegiatan membahagiakan saudara seiman sebagai perbuatan yang paling dicintai di sisi-Nya. Berdasarkan sejumlah riwayat, pekerjaan itu memiliki nilai-nilai ibadah dan dicintai oleh Tuhan. Kebiasaan mulia ini juga akan menghadirkan sebuah kehidupan duniawi dan ukhrawi yang baik bagi individu dan masyarakat.

Rentang waktu antara tanggal 14-21 bulan Esfand di Iran diperingati sebagai Pekan Kegiatan Amal dan Berbuat Kebaikan. Pekan ini diselenggarakan untuk mengumpulkan bantuan dan hadiah masyarakat untuk kemudian disalurkan kepada golongan yang kurang mampu. Di sini, Komite Emdad Imam Khomeini ra (Imam Khomeini Relief Committee) bertugas untuk mengumpulkan dan menyalurkan bantuan tersebut. Komite Emdad merupakan sebuah organisasi sosial terbesar di Iran yang didirikan pasca kemenangan Revolusi Islam atas perintah Imam Khomeini ra dan bertugas untuk memberi pelayanan kepada masyarakat kurang mampu.

Kebaikan menyimpan nilai-nilai Islami dan memiliki banyak jenisnya. Namun, bentuk yang paling utama adalah kebaikan yang dilakukan antar semasa atau kebaikan sosial. Membantu kepada sesama termasuk salah satu prinsip dasar agama Islam. Dalam surat al-Insan ayat 8-9, Allah Swt berfirman, “Dan mereka memberikan makanan yang disukainya kepada orang miskin, anak yatim dan orang yang ditawan. Sesungguhnya kami memberi makanan kepadamu hanyalah untuk mengharapkan keridhaan Allah, kami tidak menghendaki balasan dari kamu dan tidak pula (ucapan) terima kasih.”

Menjelang hari perayaan tahun baru Hijriyah Syamsiah, masyarakat Iran mulai memadati pusat-pusat perbelanjaan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan mereka dan Pekan Kegiatan Amal merupakan sebuah kesempatan untuk berbagi kebahagiaan dan menyisihkan sedikit rezeki untuk membantu orang lain. Membantu anak yatim merupakan salah satu sunnah Ilahi yang paling indah dan momen pergantian tahun dapat menjadi sebuah peluang baik untuk menghidupkan tradisi itu. Ini adalah sebuah momentum di mana kebaikan yang sedikitbisa menghadirkan sebuah senyum merekah di wajah anak-anak yatim dan mengakhiri penantian panjang orang-orang yang kurang mampu dengan berbagi kebahagiaan bersama mereka.

Pengabdian dan persahabatan menempati kedudukan istimewa dalam budaya umat manusia. Agama-agama samawi – yang dibangun atas nilai-nilai fitrah –juga menaruh perhatian besar terhadap masalah tersebut dan para nabi telah memberikan pengabdian luar biasa kepada umat manusia. Mereka juga memainkan peran penting untuk memperkuat spirit pengabdian. Mengatasi masalah orang lain dan memenuhi kebutuhan mereka merupakansebuah manifestasi pengabdian yang ditekankan Islam. Imam Husein as berkata, “Kebutuhan masyarakat merupakan salah satu anugerah Tuhan kepada kalian, maka janganlah kalian menampakkan ketidaksenangan atas permintaan itu.”

Jadi, falsafah berbuat baik adalah bahwa manusia di samping memiliki tanggung jawab individual, juga perlu memperhatikan tugas-tugas sosial dan sikap saling membantu antar sesama. Dampak utama dari kegiatan amal ini adalah mewujudkan persahabatan dan keramahan di tengah masyarakat. Manusia dermawan selalu terpanggil untuk membantu orang lain dan menyelamatkan mereka dari krisis. Mereka yang dibantu tentu tidak melupakan kebaikan manusia dermawan dan mereka juga akan berusaha untuk membalas kebaikan itu dengan bentuk yang lebih baik.

Kegiatan amal jika sudah membudaya dan menyebar luas di tengah masyarakat,tentu saja sejumlah besar masalah yang menghimpit hidup mereka akan teratasi dan angka kemiskinan juga bisa dikurangi. Sebagian besar kasus kriminal dan kejahatan dipicu oleh kemiskinan. Kehidupan yang sulit dan berat membuat orang kalap dan akhirnyamereka berburuk sangka terhadap semua hal. Imam Ali as dalam sebuah pesan kepada anaknya berkata, “Wahai anakku! Aku takut jika kemiskinan menimpamu, berlindunglah kepada Allah dari kemiskinan, karena kemiskinan akan mengurangi agama manusia dan membuat akalnya kehilangan arah serta memicu permusuhan.”

Berdasarkan ajaran agama, ada hubungan erat antara kebaikan dan upaya penyelamatan masyarakat dari kemiskinan. Dalam surat al-Baqarah ayat 195, Allah Swt berfirman, “Dan belanjakanlah (harta bendamu) di jalan Allah, dan janganlah kamu menjatuhkan dirimu sendiri ke dalam kebinasaan, dan berbuat baiklah, karena sesungguhnya Allah menyukai orang-orang yang berbuat baik.”

Infak secara umum akan menyelamatkan individu dari kerusakan sosial. Jika kegiatan berinfak sudah dilupakan dan kekayaan dikuasai oleh segolongan orang, sementara mayoritas masyarakat hidup miskin, maka tidak perlu waktu lama untuk menyaksikan sebuah ledakan besar di tengah masyarakat dan mereka juga akan membinasakan harta benda dan kekayaan orang kaya. Rasulullah Saw bersabda, “Lindungilah harta benda kalian dengan mengeluarkan zakat.” Berdasarkan penjelasan beberapa ulama tafsir,sifat kikir dan menolak berinfak di jalan Tuhan akan mematikan jiwa kemanusiaan dan menghancurkan masyarakat karena lemah dan tak berdaya, khususnya masyarakat Islam yang dibangun atas dasar persaudaraan dan berbagi kebaikan.

Dikisahkan bahwa Abu Thalhah al-Ansari, salah seorang sahabat Nabi,memiliki sebuah kebun kurma yang indah dan luas di mana semua warga Madinah membicarakan hal itu. Dia termasuk sahabat yang banyak memiliki harta dan di antara harta yang paling ia cintai adalah kebun kurma yang menghadap ke Masjid Nabawi. Rasul Saw pun pernah masuk ke kebun itu dan mencicipi air jernih yang keluar dari mata air di kebun tersebut. Ketika turun ayat ini, “Kamu sekali-kali tidak sampai kepada kebajikan (yang sempurna), sebelum kamu menafkahkan sebagian harta yang kamu cintai.” (Ali Imran: 92)

Thalhah kemudian menemui Rasul Saw untuk menyerahkan harta yang paling dicintai tersebut di jalan Allah Swt. Dia berkata, “Wahai Rasulullah, kebun kurma itu merupakan harta yangpaling aku cintai dan aku sedekahkan di jalan Allah dan aku mengharap kebaikan dan pahalanya di sisi Allah. Maka gunakanlah kebun itu wahai Rasulullah sebagaimana yang telah diperintahkan kepadamu.”Kemudian Rasul Saw bersabda, “Sungguh menakjubkan! Itu adalah harta yang sangat menguntungkan, itu adalah harta yang sangat menguntungkan dan aku telah mendengar apa yang kamu katakan. Menurutku lebih baik engkau berikan kepada kerabatmu yang membutuhkan.”Mendengar jawaban itu, Abu Thalhah berkata, “Aku akan melaksanakannya wahai Rasulullah.” Maka ia membagikan kebun kurmanya kepada kerabat dan anak pamannya.

Seorang psikolog Iran, Dokter Dolatyar Bastani menganggap kegiatan amal sebagai faktor kesehatan mental. Dia berkata, “Fenomena ketimpangan sosial dan kemiskinan sudah ada sejak dulu di masyarakat. Penelitian membuktikan bahwa infak kepada orang miskin selain dapat mengurangi angka kemiskinan dan menciptakan keseimbangan keadilan sosial, juga membawa banyak dampak positif bagi kesehatan mental seperti, menciptakan kesenangan, meningkatkan energi positif, dan memperkuat rasa percaya diri. Saat seseorang menemukan dirinya mampu berbagi dan membantu mereka, maka rasa percaya diri akan meningkat secara signifikan dalam dirinya dan ia merasa sangat puas dengan kegiatan mulia itu.”

Pada dasarnya, kebaikan dan kecintaan kepada sesama akan mengundang kecintaan dan perhatian Tuhan. Rasulullah Saw bersabda, “Sedekah yang diberikan seorang mukmin sebelum ia sampai ke tangan peminta, sedekah itu telah lebih dulu sampai di tangan Allah Swt.” (IRIB Indonesia/RM)

UNICEF: Karena Kemiskinan, Puluhan Juta Nyawa Anak Terancam


UNICEF: Karena Kemiskinan, Puluhan Juta Nyawa Anak Terancam

Dana Anak PBB (UNICEF) memperingatkan kemungkinan tewasnya jutaan anak yang tinggal di berbagai daerah miskin di dunia.

Situs al-Youm al-Sabe mengutip laporan  UNICEF, Selasa (23/6), menulis, jika anak-anak di berbagai daerah miskin  di dunia masih belum memperoleh fasilitas dan layanan yang diperlukan, maka jutaan dari mereka akan kehilangan nyawa selama 15 tahun ke depan.

Dalam laporan terbarunya, UNICEF menulis, anak-anak di berbagai daerah miskin memerlukan penanganan lebih, dan jika hal ini tidak dilakukan, maka 68 juta anak di bawah lima tahun akan mati dalam kurun waktu 15 tahun ke depan, dan 119 juta anak akan menderita kekurangan gizi kronis pada tahun 2030.

Anthony Lake, Direktur Eksekutif UNICEF mengatakan, negara-negara anggota PBB harus memasukkan persoalan anak-anak di daerah miskin dalam agenda pertamanya.

Di sisi lain,  Organisasi Buruh Internasional (ILO) dalam laporannya menyebutkan, ada 170 juta anak buruh di dunia yang merupakan sepersepuluh dari populasi anak, di mana 85 juta dari mereka berkecimpung di pekerjaan berbahaya yang sebagiannya berumur sekitar lima tahun.

ILO menambahkan, perselisihan dan konflik telah memperburuk kondisi anak-anak, sebab mereka terancam dengan penculikan dan serangan bersenjata. (IRIB Indonesia/RA)

Fathers Day


Fathers Day

Father’s Day is a celebration honoring fathers and celebrating fatherhood, paternal bonds, and the influence of fathers in society. Many countries celebrate it on the third Sunday of June, though it is also celebrated widely on other days by many other countrie

Father’s Day is observed on the third Sunday of June. It honors all fathers, grandfathers, great-grandfathers, and father figures for their contribution. It was created to complement Mother’s Day. It is not a federal holiday. Businesses will be open or closed based on the day of the week, Sunday.

Celebration\ Observance

Father’s Day is a time to recognize fathers and father figures who have influenced a person’s life. It is celebrated through cards, gifts, dining out, gifts such as electronic gadgets, sports attire, household tools or time spent together.

History

Father’s Day started in the early 20th century in the United States to celebrate fatherhood and to complement Mother’s Day. It was first celebrated on June 19, 1910 in Spokane, Washington at the YMCA by Sonora Smart Dodd. She heard about Mother’s Day in 1909 and told her pastor she thought fathers should have a similar holiday. Her father raised six children as a single parent. The local clergymen agreed to the idea and the first Father’s Day sermon was given on June 19, 1910.

A father with his son by the lake

Father’s Day was inaugurated in the United States in the early 20th century to complement Mother’s Day in celebrating fathers and male parenting.

First observance

Grace Golden Clayton may have been inspired by Anna Jarvis‘ crusade to establish Mother’s Day; two months prior, Jarvis had held a celebration for her dead mother in Grafton, West Virginia, a town about 15 miles (24 km) away from Fairmont.[citation needed]

After the success obtained by Anna Jarvis with the promotion of Mother’s Day in Grafton, West Virginia, the first observance of a “Father’s Day” was held on July 5, 1908, in Fairmont, West Virginia, in the Williams Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church South, now known as Central United Methodist Church.[1] Grace Golden Clayton was mourning the loss of her father when, on December 1907, the Monongah Mining Disaster in nearby Monongah killed 361 men, 250 of them fathers, leaving around a thousand fatherless children. Clayton suggested her pastor Robert Thomas Webb to honor all those fathers.[2][3][4][5]

Clayton’s event did not have repercussions outside of Fairmont for several reasons, among them: the city was overwhelmed by other events, the celebration was never promoted outside of the town itself and no proclamation was made in the city council. Also two events overshadowed this event: the celebration of Independence Day July 4, 1908, with 12,000 attendants and several shows including a hot air balloon event, which took over the headlines in the following days, and the death of a 16-year-old girl on July 4. The local church and council were overwhelmed and they did not even think of promoting the event, and it was not celebrated again for many years. The original sermon was not reproduced in press and it was lost. Finally, Clayton was a quiet person, who never promoted the event or even talked to other persons about it.[3][4][5]

Establishment of holiday

Father and daughter

In 1910, a Father’s Day celebration was held in Spokane, Washington, at the YMCA by Sonora Smart Dodd, who was born in Arkansas.[6] Its first celebration was in the Spokane YMCA on June 19, 1910.[6][7] Her father, the civil war veteran William Jackson Smart, was a single parent who raised his six children there.[6] After hearing a sermon about Jarvis’ Mother’s Day in 1909 at Central Methodist Episcopal Church, she told her pastor that fathers should have a similar holiday honoring them.[6] Although she initially suggested June 5, her father’s birthday, the pastors did not have enough time to prepare their sermons, and the celebration was deferred to the third Sunday of June.[1][8] Several local clergymen accepted the idea, and on 19 June 1910, the first Father’s Day, “sermons honoring fathers were presented throughout the city.”[9]

However, in the 1920s, Dodd stopped promoting the celebration because she was studying in the Art Institute of Chicago, and it faded into relative obscurity, even in Spokane.[10] In the 1930s, Dodd returned to Spokane and started promoting the celebration again, raising awareness at a national level.[11] She had the help of those trade groups that would benefit most from the holiday, for example the manufacturers of ties, tobacco pipes, and any traditional present to fathers.[12] By 1938 she had the help of the Father’s Day Council, founded by the New York Associated Men’s Wear Retailers to consolidate and systematize the commercial promotion.[13] Americans resisted the holiday for its first few decades, viewing it as nothing more than an attempt by merchants to replicate the commercial success of Mother’s Day, and newspapers frequently featured cynical and sarcastic attacks and jokes.[14] However, said merchants remained resilient and even incorporated these attacks into their advertisements.[15] By the mid-1980s, the Father’s Council wrote that “(…) [Father’s Day] has become a Second Christmas for all the men’s gift-oriented industries.”[16]

A bill to accord national recognition of the holiday was introduced in Congress in 1913.[17] In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson went to Spokane to speak in a Father’s Day celebration[18] and wanted to make it official, but Congress resisted, fearing that it would become commercialized.[19] US President Calvin Coolidge recommended in 1924 that the day be observed by the nation, but stopped short of issuing a national proclamation.[18] Two earlier attempts to formally recognize the holiday had been defeated by Congress.[18][20] In 1957, Maine Senator Margaret Chase Smith wrote a proposal accusing Congress of ignoring fathers for 40 years while honoring mothers, thus “[singling] out just one of our two parents”.[20] In 1966, President Lyndon B. Johnson issued the first presidential proclamation honoring fathers, designating the third Sunday in June as Father’s Day.[19] Six years later, the day was made a permanent national holiday when President Richard Nixon signed it into law in 1972.[18][19][20][21]

In addition to Father’s Day, International Men’s Day is celebrated in many countries on November 19 for men and boys who are not fathers.

Failed attempts at establishing a Father’s Day

In 1911, Jane Addams proposed a city-wide Father’s Day in Chicago, but she was turned down.[8]

In 1912, there was a Father’s Day celebration in Vancouver, Washington, suggested by Methodist pastor J. J. Berringer of the Irvingtom Methodist Church. They believed mistakenly that they had been the first to celebrate such a day.[1] They followed a 1911 suggestion by the Portland Oregonian.[8]

Harry C. Meek, member of Lions Clubs International, claimed that he had first the idea for Father’s Day in 1915.[1][8] Meek claimed that the third Sunday of June was chosen because it was his birthday (it would have been more natural to choose his father’s birthday).[8] The Lions Club has named him “Originator of Father’s Day”.[1] Meek made many efforts to promote Father’s Day and make it an official holiday.[1][8]

Spelling

In the United States, Dodd used the “Fathers’ Day” spelling on her original petition for the holiday,[6] but the spelling “Father’s Day” was already used in 1913 when a bill was introduced to the U.S. Congress as the first attempt to establish the holiday,[17] and it was still spelled the same way when its creator was commended in 2008 by the U.S. Congress.[22]

Dates around the world

The officially recognized date of Father’s Day varies from country to country. This section lists some significant examples, in order of date of observanced. https://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Father%27s_Day